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CAMPBELL Scotland>Ireland>Washington County, PA

Three as yet unrelated CAMPBELL lines all with connections to Western Pennsylvania: Jane Campbell, REA-CAMPBELL Families, Archibald CAMPBELL, Duke of Argyll, Scotland

Jane CAMPBELLof the CLAN CAMPBELL, (webmaster's ancestor): a biographical sketch published about Hugh White (son of Thompson, Jacob, James, William) states "that he traces his ancestry back to William White, who was of Scotch descent and lived in the north of Ireland. He eloped with Miss Jane CAMPBELL, who belonged to the Clan Campbell and was the daughter of a nobleman who lived in Ireland and was opposed to the marriage." I do not know if this William White married both Jane Campbell and later Margaret or if one is an ancestor of the other.

CAMPBELL-REA Families by Florence Spicer, 1973. David CAMPBELL and Ann REA are the subjects of the this book. Their son Rea Campbell (1823-1867) married Jane Ann WHITE (1832-1925), his second wife, in 1848.  Jane's ancestors are James Morrow WHITE, Jacob WHITE, James WHITE,  William WHITE.  Florence Spicer passed away about 1995 or 1996.

William Mason Campbell Beer's Washington County, PA
Graham S. Campbell with FULTON and REA connections, Beer's Washington County, PA

Clan CAMPBELL Society of North America      Clan CAMPBELL on Electric Scotland    Clan CAMPBELL Society       Hyle CAMPELL's site

Steve Bivans' http://www.familytreemaker.com/users/b/i/v/Steve--J-Bivans/  Steve wrote: I am supposedly descended from a John Campbell b. abt 1692 in Antrim, Ireland. He m. Ann ? and died in 1774 in York, Co., Penn.  They had 7 children as far as the info I have found indicates:  William (my ancestor), John, James, Robert, Ann, Jennet and Cathrine. William m. Elizbeth McCLARY 3/5/1770 in Lancaster, Penn and died 6/2/1801 in  Washington Co.,Penn.  They also had seven children: John, Edward, James, Charles, William, Elizabeth and Jesse.


The origin of the name Campbell comes from the Gaelic cam (wry) and beul (mouth), wry-mouth. This was taken from a book on Scottish coats of arms and the description that follows may or may not be part of the Campbells mentioned in this book, ancestors of David Campbell, no.13.

"CAMPBELL OF BREADALBANE"    "Crest Badge: A boar's head, erased, proper.     Motto: Follow me.         Gaelic Name: Caimbeul.

The Campbells of Breadalbane trace their family back to Sir Cohn, son of Sir Duncan CAMPBELL of Lochow. From his father he received the lands of Glenorchy, and through his marriage with a daughter of Lord Lorn he received a third part of the lands of Lorn. He built Kilchurn Castle in 1440, and for his valour in Palestine he was made a Knight of Rhodes. The descendants of Sir Duncan were successful in adding to the possessions of the family, and in course of time these included the lands of Glenlyon, Finlarig, and territory throughout Argyll and Perthshire. Sir John Campbell, 11th of Glenorchy, was created Earl of Breadalbane in 1681, and was a strong supporter of King Charles II. He was described as cunning as a fox, wise as a serpent, and as slippery as an eel. In 1789 he was employed to bribe the Highland clans to submit to King William Ill. He died in 1716. In 1806 John, 14th of Breadalbane, was created a Baron of the United Kingdom, and in 1831, he was raised to a Marquessate. In 1862 by the death of John, 5th Earl, without issue, the United Kingdom titles became extinct, but the Marquessate was restored to Gavin, 7th Earl, in 1885. On the death of the 7th Earl in 1922, without issue, the Marquessate again became extinct, but the Scottish honours devolved upon his nephew, 8th Earl. The following sketch was sent to me by Mrs. George H. Warrick and it gives a brief history of the Campbell family in Washington Co., Pa. It may contain much information that will be repeated, however, it may be informative as a summary.


"(The following brief sketch will be of interest not merely to those more immediately and personally concerned, but to many of their numerous acquaintances, and to a still larger circle of readers who will recognize in this family record an illustration of that Providential care and blessing which have been the inheritance of numerous families of our Presbyterian pioneers. The households which were planted in Western Pennsulvania amidst hardships and perils unknown to the frontiersmen of today, but with prayer and faith such as are seldom witnessed among the throngs of our onrushing emigrants, have extended their branches far and wide. Could the remote and widely separated scions be gathered back to the original starting point, to celebrate the centennial of 4heir first planting in the West, many a tribe that would count up its hundreds would gratefully commemorate the covenant-keeping faithfulness of their father's God. We are indebted for this narrative to Mr. John S.Cratty, of Bellair, Ohio. Editor, Presbyterian Banner.)

A Campbell Centenniel

During the year 1779 or 1780, four Campbell brothers, namely William, John, James and Charles, emigrated from York County, Pa. to what is now Washington County, Pa. William located on the farm now owned and occupied by Mr. N.B. CAMPBELL, a grandson. This farm is situated on a ridge dividing the head waters of Cross Creek, and Raccoon Creek. John located on lands adjoining William on the waters of Cross Creek, on the farm now owned and occupied by his grandson, William MASON CAMPBELL." Note: The land owned by John CAMPBELL was recorded in the Survey Index for Washington County, Pa. on page 193. Here it states "In pursuance of a warrant for 200 acres in the name of John Campbell dated Sept.13, 1785, the above survey called "Farmanagh" lying on the waters of crop creek in Washington County (Latitude and Longitude stated) with the usual allownace was executed Dec.28, 1785." In 1785 this land was joined on the west by William Campbell's land, on the southeast by property owned by John Cowan, on the south by Ann Sonnachu's land, and on the west by Samuel Johnston's property. Cross creek, called ' crop' creek, cut through the middle of John CAMPBELL's land. "James (CAMPBELL) located on a farm now owned by  William and Robert LYLE two of his lineal descendants. Charles located on a branch of Raccoon Creek. Some time since the descendants of John Campbell determined to hold a reunion to celebrate the centennial anniversary of his settlement on the ancestral homestead. The following history was read on that occasion, Sept. 9th, 1880:

'John CAMPBELL was born, probably in York County, Pa. in 1744. In 1772 he married Jane Hammond. In 1778 or 1780, they with their small family crossed the mountains and built their first log cabin, where we are now met. This worthy pair were the descendants of Scotch and Scotch-Irish parentage who trained them in the doctrines of the Presbyterian Church. The salutary effect of that training has been most strikingly manifest on the generations following: showing clearly that Abraham's God is still the convenant keeping, promise-fulfilling God that He was in Abraham's day.

These parents had ten children, six sons and four daughters, all of whom lived to raise large families, except Anne the eldest daughter, who died before reaching womanhood. John, the eldest son, married Mary LYLE, daughter of the Hon. Aaron LYLE, who once represented this country in the Congress of the United States. William married Nellie SMITH, and James married her sister Margaret, who lived to the great age of ninety-four, coming to her grave like a shock of corn fully ripe. David and George married Anne and Elizabeth, daughters of William REA, Esq., one of the early settlers of the waters of Cross Creek. Charles married Esther MASON, whose parents immigrated to Cross Creek Township at an early period. Of the daughters, Grizzel Ia, the oldest, married Benjamin BAY. This pair moved to Ohio soon after their marriage, and located near the town of New Cumberland in Guernsey County. Mary married William FULTON, a son of Captain Fulton, a soldier in the Revolutionary War. Elizabeth married William REA, son of William  REA, Esq.

Two of the sons, David and Charles were chosen elders in the congregations to which they belonged. James and David were each elected to the office of Associate Judge of the courts, the former of Belmont County, the latter of Harrison County, Ohio. Four of the sons, namely John, William, James, and David, located on a section of land situated on the waters of Wheeling Creek, in Belmont County, Ohio.

These nine all raised families averaging more than ten children each. Eight of the grandsons acquired a collegiate education. Two of these became ministers of the gospel, Rev. David R. CAMPBELL, D. D., late of the Second Presbyterian Church of Steubenville, Ohio and Rev. William R. FULTON of Greenfield, Mo. Two others, John and Obadiah CAMPBELL who were preparing for the ministry, died before beginning their life work. Three of the remaining four studied medicine, namely, John Bay, who died before entering the practice of his profession; Dr. John Campbell who has practiced medicine in Uniontown, Ohio for over fifty-two years, being the oldest physician in the county, also the oldest Elder of the Crab Apple congregation within whose bounds he has resided these many years; and Dr. William Campbell, who died a few years since in Cambridge, Ohio. He was the oldest son of David Campbell, Sr. The eighth was Samuel FULTON, who graduated at Jefferson College and afterwards settled in Kentucky where he died a short time since. Most of the remaining grandsons followed the honorable occupation of tilling the soil. Many of them became elders of the churches to which they belonged.'

The great-grand-children are too numerous to speak of in detail. They number in the aggregate three hundred and sixty-five. The fourth generation number one hundred and seventy-one. The fifth generation, twenty. Making in all six hundred and sixty one.

In conclusion I would remark that since my attention has been directed to the gathering up of these facts of traditional history, my mind has been deeply impressed with the manifest design of Providence in peopling this portion of this grand old State, Pennsylvania, with such a sturdy, stalwart race, so deeply imbued with the pure doctrines of the Bible. The influence sent forth from this region has been felt over a large portion of our western country."

Duncan Campbell  dwcampbell@adelphia.net is related to the CAMPBELLs in Florence Spicer's REA-CAMPBELL book. He wrote: <snip> " John Campbell of York County, who died circa 1775 is as early as my records go.  At least that is as far as I presently have any confidence in them."

The info below is from the REA-CAMPBELL book page 7 with Duncan's notes added:
Generation 1: John CAMPBELL b. 1621 m. Grace HAY, daughter of Peter HAY. His father was Duncan CAMPBELL. His mother was Mary McCOY. Their son was born in Ireland.
Generation 2: Child:  John CAMPBELL, b. 1656, in Ireland, died in Windsor Twp. York Co. PA, Feb 20 1734
Generation 3: John CAMPBELL, b. book printed 1692 Handwritten note, by Florence Spicer, next to John birth "1704 in York Co, PA "Kathyrn Blackburn" Mrs Long letters 11/20/80" also "His father William who married Elizabeth "Clan Campbell" Long Letters 11/20/80" Death date of 1774 changed to 1775 in pencil. I might not be clear on the meaning of her notes.

This should be worth pursuing.  For example, John's will was apparently written/filed in 1774, but not probated/executed until 1775 which is when I assume that he really died. I wonder if John was born in 1740, or 1704?  Either one is possible.

This John CAMPBELL married Ann ....... She has his will reprinted.
Children: William, b 1739; John b either 1740 or 1744; James; Charles, Ann,
Catrin Margaret, and Jennet. I too have a copy of this Will, which was recorded in York County, PA.  I
believe I am descended from the William mentioned here as born in 1739. The girl's names are included in the Will.  I am wondering if the Daughters are Catrin Margaret and Jennet (total of 2), or Catrin, Margaret and Jennet (Janet?) total of three?  The Will itself is not very clear about this.

John (above) b. 1740 or 1744 m. Mary HAMMOND- 10 children, 4 of whom married
into other families I am related to:

Duncan Campbell (dwc@rlc.net) has been in contact with a Donald W. Campbell of
Pennsylvania, who is descended from John and Ann of York County.  Donald has the
original sheepskin deed for the plat of land settled by his ancestor, that
was originally known as Fumanah.  

CHAPMAN/ODENBAUGH/CAMPBELL from Wash County (PA)  website (no known relationship to REA-Campbell families but probable: Elder Thomas CAMPBELL, grandfather of subject (a descendant of Archibald Campbell, Duke of Argyll, Scotland), was born February 1, 1763, in County Down, Ireland, where in June, 1787, he was married to Jane CORNEIGLE, a descendant of the French Huguenots. In an early day (1807) he came to this country, making his home near Washington, Penn., finally removing to Bethany, W. Va., where he died at the advanced age of ninety-one years. The following is a brief record of his children that grew to maturity: His eldest son, Alexander, while in Ireland became a student of theology, concluding his education at Glasgow, Scotland. He and his father were eminent ministers of the Seceder Church. In 1809 he joined his father in this country. In the meantime they both became dissatisfied with the divided state of Christendom, and proposed a remedy by inviting all Christians to unite with them "on the Bible and the Bible alone." And thus Thomas and Alexander Campbell inaugurated the "Reformation of the Nineteenth Century," forming churches on this basis, known as "Churches of Christ," or "Disciples," which have attained high standing among the religionists of the world, and to-day numbers 1,000,000 members in the United States. Alexander also founded Bethany College, Bethany, W. Va., of which he was president until his death in 1866. The second son, Thomas, was a leading physician in this county. Archibald was also a prominent physician, as well as an able preacher. Dorothy became the wife of Joseph BRYANT. Nancy (CAMPBELL) (mother of subject) became the wife of Andrew L. CHAPMAN. Alicia became the wife of Mathew CLAPP, and Jane, the wife of Mathew McKEEVER.

'The Fool of God'  is a novel based on the life of, Alexander Campbell (1764-1824) mentioned above, the founder of the Church of Christ (Disciples) from Washington, PA--Bethany, W VA.
AUTHOR   Cochran, Louis, 1899-  DESCRIPTION:   413 p. 22 cm.
TITLE   The fool of God; a novel based upon the life of Alexander Campbell
EDITION     1st ed. PUB/DATE    New York, Duell, Sloan and Pearce [1958].

The Great Historic Families of Scotland, Volume 1

On the other hand, the said Duncan Campbell of Glenorchy, having in recollection his own fostering in the house of Duntrune, and the present delivery of his son to the said Agnes, he therefore promised to be a true and constant friend to her and his brethren [foster-brothers], to receive her and them in heartlie kindness and favour, and to defend them in all their lawful actions and quarrels, the authority of the Earl of Argyll being excepted.


By another contract, dated at the castle of Glenorchy, 5th November, 1580, Duncan Campbell, Fiar of Glenorchy, gave his son and [p.267] heir, Duncan, in fosterage to his native servant, Gillecreist Macdonchy Duff Vic Nokerd, and Katherine Neyn Douill Vikconchy, his spouse, to be sustained by them and nourished till he be sent to the schools, and to maintain him at the schools with reasonable support; the said father and foster-father giving between them of makhelve goods to the foster-child at Beltane the value of 200 merks of cows, and two horses or two mares worth forty merks, which, with their increase, were to belong to the child, but the milk to the foster-parents, so long as they maintained him and till his going to the schools. If the child should die before he is sent there, his father agrees to send another of his children, 'lass or lad,' to be fostered in his stead, the foster-parents in either case being bound to leave at their death a bairn's part of gear, as much as they leave to their own children, lands being excepted.


Another series of papers gives examples of those bonds of manrent service which were entered into with a like object between the Lairds of Glenorchy and the heads of the neighbouring tribes and families. Thus on the 2nd of June, 1548, the M'Gillekeyrs agree for themselves and their successors that they have chosen an honourable man, John Campbell of Glenorchy, to be their chief and protector in all just actions, 'as ane cheyf dois in the countries of the Helandis;' and when any of them died they were to leave to him 'ane cawylpe of kenkynie' (the best four-footed beast in their possession at the time of their death), as is usual in the neighbouring district; and among other obligations undertaken by them were those 'of ryding and ganging on horse and on futt in Heland and Lowland.' This right was at times transferred by one chief to another, as when Archibald, Earl of Argyll, on 24th December, 1566, conveyed to Colin Campbell of Glenorchy the manrent service and calps due to him and his predecessors by the Clantyre in Balquhidder, because they were nearer to the said Colin, and he was therefore better able [p.268] to protect them. At other times the transference originated on the other side. Thus in 1552 Gregor M'Gregor, son to the Dean of Lismore, and Donald Beg M'Acrom and his brethren in the Brae of Weem, with many other families, renounced the Laird of M'Gregor as their chief, and bound themselves to Colin Campbell of Glenorchy and his heirs as their perpetual chief in the usual form, agreeing to bequeath to them their calps.


Sir Colin was succeeded by SIR DUNCAN CAMPBELL, his eldest son, usually termed Donacha dhu na Curich, Black Duncan of the Cowl, who seems to have been a man of considerable force of character, but unscrupulous and treacherous. He was appointed by James VI., 18th May, 1590, one of the barons to assist at the coronation of his queen, Anne of Denmark, when he received the honour of knighthood. Sir Duncan was one of the six guardians of the young Earl of Argyll appointed by the will of his father, the sixth Earl, in 1584, all of them cadets of the family, and one of their number, Campbell of Lochnell, was the nearest heir to the earldom. Sir Duncan was deeply implicated in the conspiracy to which the Lord Chancellor, Lord Maitland of Thirleston, and the Earl of Huntly were parties, to murder the Earl of Argyll, Campbell of Calder or Cawdor, one of his guardians, and the Earl of Moray (see ARGYLL FAMILY). Mr. Gregory, in his 'History of the Western Islands and Highlands,' expressly charges Sir Duncan Campbell with being the principal mover in the plot which led to the murder of Calder. 'Glenorchy,' he says, 'knowing the feelings of personal animosity cherished by Campbell of Ardkinglas, his brother-in-law, against Calder, easily [p.269] prevailed upon the former to agree to the assassination of their common enemy, with whom Glenorchy himself had now an additional cause of quarrel arising from the protection given by Calder to some of the clan Gregor who were at feud with Glenorchy. After various unsuccessful attempts, Ardkinglas procured, through the agency of John Oig Campbell of Cabrachan, a brother of Lochnell, the services of a man named M'Kellar, by whom Calder was assassinated with a hackbut supplied by Ardkinglas, the fatal shot being fired at night through one of the windows of the house of Kepnoch, in Lorne, when Calder fell pierced through the heart with three bullets. Owing to his hereditary feud with Calder, Ardkinglas was generally suspected as the instigator of this murder, and being in consequence threatened with the vengeance of the young Earl of Argyll, Glenorchy ventured to communicate to him the plan for getting rid of the Earl and his brother, and for assisting Lochnell to seize the earldom. Ardkinglas refused, though repeatedly urged, to become a party to any designs against the life of the Earl, and proposed to make his peace with Argyll by disclosing the full extent of the plot. The inferior agents, John Oig Campbell and M'Kellar, were both executed, but all the influence of Calder's relations and friends could not obtain the punishment of any of the higher parties. Glenorchy was allowed to clear himself of all concern in the plots attributed to him by his own unsupported and extrajudicial denial in writing. He offered to abide his trial, which he well knew the Chancellor Thirlstane and the Earl of Huntly were deeply interested in preventing.


These books also furnish us with the names of the Laird's guests, which is a feature of great interest. Thus in the week beginning 18th September, 1590, besides Sir Duncan and Lady Campbell, there were at table the Laird of Tullibardine, the Laird of Abercairnie, the Bishop of Dunkeld, the Tutor of Duncrub, the Laird of Inchbraikie, the Prior of Charterhouse, 'with sindrie other cumeris and gangeris [goers].'


An Inventory of the 'Geir [goods, effects] left by Sir Colin, not to be disponit upon,' made up by Sir Robert Campbell in 1640, contains a list of jewels and silver plate of no ordinary extent. Of the former is 'ane targett of gold, set with three diamonds, four topacis, or jacincts, ane rubie, and ane sapphire enammeled, given by King James the Fyft, of worthie memorie, to ane of the Laird of Glenurchay his predecessoures; item, ane round jewell of gold sett with precious stones, containing 29 diamonds and 4 great rubies, quhilk Queen Anna of worthie memorie, Queene of Great Britane, France, and Ireland [James VI.'s Queen] gave to umquhile [the late] Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenurquhy, and uther four small diamonds quhilk the said Queene Anna, of worthie memorie, gave to the said Sir Duncane; item, ane fair silver brotch sett with precious stones; item, ane stone of the quantitie of half an hen's eg sett in silver, being flat at the ane end and round at the uther end, lyke a peir, quhilk Sir Colin Campbell, first Laird of Glenurquhay, wore when he faught in battell at the Rhodes against the Turks, he being one of the Knychtis of the Rhodes; of great gold buttons 66.' The 'silver work' comprehended 'plaittes,' 'chargers,' 'lavers, with basons partly overgilt,' 'silver trenchers,' and 'sasers partly overgilt,' 'great silver cups,' some of them 'engraved' and 'partly overgilt,' and some with the Laird's arms, 'little long schankit cups for acavite [whisky], silver goblets, salt-fats, masers, spoons, some of which had the lairdis name on them.'


Breadalbane had claims upon the gratitude of the royal family for [p.274] the great assistance which he gave, in 1653, to the forces collected in the Highlands under General Middleton, in the cause of Charles II., and for his endeavours to persuade Monk, after Cromwell's death, to declare for a free Parliament, as the most effectual way of bringing about the restoration of the Stewarts. He was a principal creditor of George Sinclair, sixth Earl of Caithness, whose debts were said to have exceeded a million of marks; and, in 1672, that nobleman executed a disposition of his whole estates, heritable jurisdictions, and titles, in favour of Campbell of Glenorchy, who took on himself the burden of the Earl's debts. On the death of Lord Caithness, without issue, in 1676, Sir John Campbell obtained a patent creating him Earl of Caithness; but George Sinclair, of Keiss, the heir-male of the family, disputed his right to that title, and the Parliament having decided in his favour, Sir John was created, in 1681, Earl of Breadalbane and Holland, Viscount of Tay and Paintland, Lord Glenorchy, Benderaloch, Ormelie, and Wick, with remainder to whichever of his sons by his first wife he might designate in writing, and ultimately to his heirs-male whomsoever.


Breadalbane at once took guilt to himself. A few days after the massacre he sent Campbell of Barcaldin, his chamberlain, to the men of Glencoe to say that if they would declare under their hands that his lordship had no concern in the massacre, they might be assured the Earl would procure their 'remission and restitution.' It was not until 1695, three years after the Glencoe massacre, that a commission was appointed to inquire into the shocking affair. They reported that they did not find it proved that Breadalbane was implicated in the slaughter, but they discovered that the Earl had laid himself open to a charge of high treason by the manner in which he had acted in his negotiations with the clans; that he had professed to be a zealous partisan of James, and had recommended the chiefs to accept the money offered them by the Government, but at the same [p.277] time to be on the watch for an opportunity of taking up arms in favour of the exiled monarch. The Parliament immediately committed Breadalbane a prisoner to the Castle of Edinburgh, but he was speedily released by the Ministry on the plea that the treacherous villain had, as he alleged, professed himself a Jacobite merely in order that he might discover and betray the plans of the Jacobite chiefs.

page 278

JOHN CAMPBELL, Lord Glenorchy, born in 1662, whom he nominated in terms of his patent as his successor in the earldom and in his extensive estates. There is no reason to suppose that his eldest son, Duncan, Lord Ormelie, whom he passed over, had given him any personal offence, or had done anything which warranted this treatment. The probability seems to be that the cunning and suspicious old Earl was apprehensive that though the part his clan, under the command of his eldest son, had taken in the Rebellion of 1715 had been condoned by the Government, they might after all revive the offence and deprive him of his titles and estates. He therefore disinherited Lord Ormelie in favour of his younger brother. The unfortunate youth seems to have passed his life in obscurity without any steps having been taken to preserve a record of his descendants. In 1721, however, at a keenly contested election of a Scottish representative peer in the room of the Marquis of Annandale, the right of the second Earl to the peerage was called in question on the part of his elder brother on the ground that any disposition or nomination [p.278] from his father to the honours and dignity of Earl of Breadalbane 'could not convey the honours, nor could the Crown effectually grant a peerage to any person and to such heirs as he should name, such patent being inconsistent with the nature of a peerage, and not agreeable to law, and also without precedent.' Strange to say, these weighty objections were overruled by the peers, and by a decision which is quite unique, Lord Glenorchy was confirmed in his ancestral honours and estates. He was remarkable only for his longevity, having died in 1752 in his ninetieth year.


[p.279] On the death of the third Earl of Breadalbane, in 1782, the male line of the first Earl was supposed to have become extinct, though it is not improbable that his eldest son had left issue who had the first claim to the family titles and estates. But JOHN CAMPBELL OF CARWHIN, who was descended from Colin Campbell of Mochaster, second son of Sir Robert Campbell of Glenorchy, took possession of both without opposition. He raised a regiment in 1793, called the Breadalbane Fencibles, for the service of the Government, and in various other ways displayed a patriotic spirit during the protracted war with France. He was created a peer of the United Kingdom in 1806 by the title of Baron Breadalbane of Taymouth, and in 1831 was raised to the rank of Marquis of Breadalbane and Earl of Ormelie. His attention was chiefly devoted to the improvement of his extensive estates, great portions of which he planted with trees fitted for the soil, and by his costly improvements he rendered the park at Taymouth one of the most extensive and beautiful in the kingdom. The Earl married, in 1793, Mary Turner, eldest daughter and co-heiress of David Gavin, Esq., of Langton. Thereby, as we shall see, hangs a tale.